What is Flat Feet?
Flat feet is often a complex disorder, with diverse symptoms and varying degrees of deformity and disability. There are several types of flat feet, all of which have one characteristic in common-partial or total collapse (loss) of the arch.
Other characteristics shared by most types of flat feet include:
- "Toe drift," where the toes and front part of the foot point outward.
- The heel tilts toward the outside and the ankle appears to turn in.
- A short Achilles tendon, which causes the heel to lift off the ground earlier when walking and may act as a deforming force.
- Bunions and hammertoes may occur in some people with flat feet.
- Health problems such as rheumatoid arthritis or diabetes sometimes increase the risk of developing flat feet. In addition, adults who are overweight frequently have flat feet.
Flexible Flat Feet
Flexible flat feet is one of the most common types of flat feet. It typically begins in childhood or adolescence and continues into adulthood. It usually occurs in both feet and generally progresses in severity throughout the adult years. As the deformity worsens, the soft tissues (tendons and ligaments) of the arch may stretch or tear and can become inflamed.
The term "flexible" means that while the feet are flat when standing (weight-bearing), the arch returns when not standing. In the early stages of flexible flat feet, arthritis is not restricting motion of the arch and foot, but in the later stages arthritis may develop to such a point that the arch and foot become stiff.
Symptoms, which may occur in some persons with flexible flat feet, include:
- Pain in the heel, arch, ankle, or along the outside of the foot.
- "Turned-in" ankle.
- Pain associated with a shin splint.
- General weakness/fatigue in the foot or leg
Diagnosis of Flexible Flat Feet
In diagnosing flat feet, the foot and ankle surgeon examines the foot and observes how it looks when you stand and sit. X-rays are usually taken to determine the severity of the disorder. If you are diagnosed with flexible flat feet but you don't have any symptoms, your foot and ankle surgeon will explain what you might expect in the future.
If you experience symptoms with flexible flat feet, the foot and ankle surgeon may recommend various treatment options.
Flat Feet Surgery
A variety of surgical techniques is available to correct flexible flat feet. Your case may require one procedure or a combination of procedures. All of these surgical techniques are aimed at relieving the symptoms and improving foot function. Among these procedures are tendon transfers or tendon lengthening procedures, realignment of one or more bones, joint fusions, or insertion of implant devices.
In selecting the procedure or combination of procedures for your particular case, the foot and ankle surgeon will take into consideration the extent of your deformity based on the X-ray findings, your age, your activity level, and other factors. The length of the recovery period will vary, depending on the procedure or procedures performed.